There are many kinds of pumps. If you are talking about pumps, in general it refers to a device or machine that used for raising, compressing or transferring fluids, mostly water, but it also including oil, acids or even liquid metals. It is also can move gas mixture or paste or liquids containing suspended solids.
Pumps for housing need are different with industrial pumps. By categories, there are engine driven pumps, high pressure pumps, padestal pumps diaphraghm pumps, self priming electric pumps and chemical pumps, sprinkler/booster pumps, sewage/trash pumps and many others.